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Wireless Network

Definition
Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that uses wireless infrastructure (usually, but not always radio waves) for network connections. It needs network components such as Wi-Fi adapter, wireless router / modem, etc.,

Types

  • Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network).
  • Wireless LAN (Local Area Network).
  • Wireless Mesh Network .
  • Wireless MAN (Metropolitan Area Network).
  • Wireless WAN (Wide Area Network).
  • Cellular Network (Mobile Network).

Wireless Sensor Network

  • A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc.
  • The WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors.
  • Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an interior antenna or connection to an outer antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting.
  • The topology of the WSNs can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network.

Block Diagram

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WSN Network Topologies

WSN nodes are typically organized in one of three types of network topologies.

Star topology- star topology, each node connects directly to a gateway.

Cluster tree network- cluster tree network, each node connects to a node higher in the tree and then to the gateway, and data is routed from the lowest node on the tree to the gateway.

Mesh networks- mesh networks feature nodes that can connect to multiple nodes in the system and pass data through the most reliable path available.

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Advantages

  • It avoids a lot of wiring .
  • It can accommodate new devices at any time .
  • It's flexible to go through physical partitions .
  • It can be accessed through a centralized monitor.

Real Time Examples

  • Area monitoring.
  • Environmental/Earth monitoring.
  • Air quality monitoring.
  • Air pollution monitoring.
  • Forest fire detection.
  • Landslide detection.
  • Water quality monitoring.
  • Natural disaster prevention.
  • Machine health monitoring.
  • Agriculture.